The Initial National Communication (INC) of Bosnia and Herzegovina under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has been adopted by the BiH Council of Ministers and entity governments and submitted to the UNFCCC Secretariat in Bonn. In accordance with the guidelines of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was signed by Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2000, the UNDP CO in BiH, organised, with the financial support of GEF, the selection of an expert team and 50 local experts from 14 relevant fields, who participated in the preparation of the Initial National Communication of Bosnia and Herzegovina in a professional way and in line with the international standards. Each UNFCCC signatory state has an obligation to submit its national reports to the UNFCCC Secretariat. By preparing, verifying and submitting its INC, Bosnia and Herzegovina has become a full participant in the global process of deliberation on climate change adaptation and mitigation. In addition to the conclusion that climate change is caused by human activities and, as such, can be mitigated or prevented through appropriate measures, the report gives a factual overview of climatic factors, specific circumstances in BiH, calculation of the GHG emissions, vulnerability and adaptation to climate changes as well as the estimation of the potential for mitigating climate change. The document also explains other relevant circumstances, limitations and gaps, international cooperation and concludes with some general recommendations and next steps. The INC data and recommendations will help create conditions for developing a long-term national development strategy and its implementation at the micro and macro levels. Climate change may open up excellent developmental opportunities for the academic community, in terms of education of young future experts, application of international practices and utilisation of international funds as well as create new chances for employment in this field. This is a chance for prosperity as well as for businesspeople in Bosnia and Herzegovina, who should, when developing business plans, use climate change prognoses and seek access to international funds for the development and improvement of the existing and new business ideas. The INC data and guidelines are aimed to be of major importance to the non-governmental sector as well.